May 10, 2009
主任威廉唐纳森 ( William E. Donaldson ) 指出：
一直到 1900 年代中期，家禽主要是在住家后院养殖且养殖的密度也很低…而且成长率和产蛋量也低。在这样的环境下，即使在世界各地都有传出马立克氏病( MD ) 的爆发，该病也并未被视为重大疾病。但是，自六十年代以来家禽生产的养殖方式则出现了一些大变化。今日的家禽生产方式已变成在高密度下以高度集约化的条件为主的全球性的经营方式， 旨在更高的经济增长率和生产力…在 1960 年左右，当家禽生产不是以密集的规模来经营时，病毒和宿主都能彼此在一个平衡的状况下共存。但是，在六十年代初期，当家禽业转型进入密集式的生产方式时，这样的平衡状态则朝着对病毒有利的方向转变。大量容易受到感染的宿主不断地存在，而且这些宿主通常生活在过度拥挤的环境中，所以病毒能迅速地传播，也能快速地演进成更大的毒力。六十年代大规模马立克氏病 ( MD ) 爆发时疫情席卷世界各地而使得鸡群数量急剧减少便是一个例证。(190)
在五十年代后期当首波的病毒演化后，病毒便从“ mMDV ” ( 温和马立克氏病病毒 ) 转为“ vMDV ” ( 强毒马立克氏病病毒 )。在一定程度上，持续不断增加的工业养殖做法使得 “ vMDV ” ( 强毒马立克氏病病毒 ) 变成了 “ vvMDV ” （超强马立克氏病病毒），而目前，世界上正在面临抵抗 “ vv+MDV ” 超超强马立克氏病病毒的挑战。(191)
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