May 10, 2009
“ 新生的火雞雛雞 ”都擠在一起，然後被順著滑板扔到移動板上，工人們將牠們撿起後剪冠、修剪每隻腳上的三個腳趾以及去喙後再將牠們放置在另一個輸送帶上，這些輸送帶會將雛雞送到另一個旋轉台上並自動地在牠們的脖子後方注射，而這些注射物通常是抗生素。基本上，他們已經經過了一項大手術，而且也已經受到了創傷。 ” (64)
“ 終年飼養在室內的家禽，會較易受到傳染性疾病的感染。由於空氣質量的降低、在密閉的環境下病原體的累積、以及缺乏日光曝曬等因素，使得禽類天生抗病力便因此降低了。” (103)
一直到 1900 年代中期，家禽主要是在住家後院養殖且養殖的密度也很低…而且成長率和產蛋量也低。在這樣的環境下，即使在世界各地都有傳出馬立克氏病 ( MD ) 的爆發，該病也並未被視為重大疾病。但是，自六十年代以來家禽生產的養殖方式則出現了一些大變化。今日的家禽生產方式已變成在高密度下以高度集約化的條件為主的全球性的經營方式，旨在更高的經濟增長率和生產力…在 1960 年左右，當家禽生產不是以密集的規模來經營時，病毒和宿主都能彼此在一個平衡的狀況下共存。但是，在六十年代初期，當家禽業轉型進入密集式的生產方式時，這樣的平衡狀態則朝著對病毒有利的方向轉變。大量容易受到感染的宿主不斷地存在，而且這些宿主通常生活在過度擁擠的環境中，所以病毒能迅速地傳播，也能快速地演進成更大的毒力。六十年代大規模馬立克氏病 ( MD ) 爆發時疫情席捲世界各地而使得雞群數量急劇減少便是一個例證。(190)
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